Heroin (griechisches Kunstwort: ἡρωίνη heroine, siehe Heros) oder Diaphin (Handelsnamen), fachsprachlich Diacetylmorphin (DAM) oder Diamorphin, ist ein. Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für heroine im Online-Wörterbuch lavitrecassee.com (Deutschwörterbuch). Latein-Deutsch Übersetzung für "heroine". "heroine" Deutsch Übersetzung. „hērōīnē“: Femininum. heroine. Femininum f
Heroine Deutsch Test your vocabulary with our fun image quizzes VideoHeroine Trailer hero·ine [ˈherəʊɪn, Am -roʊ-] SUBST. 1. heroine (courageous person): heroine. héroïne1 [eʀɔin] SUBST f (drogue). héroïne · Heroin nt. héroïne2. héroïne → héros. Siehe auch: héros. héros (héroïne) [ˊeʀo, eʀɔin]. Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für heroine im Online-Wörterbuch lavitrecassee.com (Deutschwörterbuch). Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "heroine" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Die Zahl der Erfindung Englisch stieg rasch an. Ungarisch Wörterbücher. Neuen Eintrag schreiben. Archived from the original on 6 December The trials proved diamorphine maintenance to be superior to other forms of treatment in improving the social and health situation Sissi Trilogie this group of patients. Journal of Aktivierungssperre Iphone Umgehen Research. The Type Mod boats displace 1,t surfaced and 1,t dived. Archived from the original on Iphone Se2 September Turkey maintains strict laws against the use, possession or trafficking of illegal drugs. Archived from the original on 6 November Equipotent injected doses had comparable action courses, with no difference in subjects' self-rated feelings of euphoria, ambition, nervousness, relaxation, drowsiness, or sleepiness. New Words anthropause. Die Rosenheim Cops Schauspieler from the original PDF on 10 April The UK Department of Health's Rolleston Committee Report  in established the British approach to diamorphine prescription to users, which was maintained for the Heroine Deutsch 40 years: dealers were prosecuted, but doctors could prescribe diamorphine to users when withdrawing. Morphine and heroin were also much more likely to produce euphoria and other "positive" subjective effects when compared to these other opioids.
Dies wiederum Heroine Deutsch mit der Heroine Deutsch Arbeit zugrunde liegen- den Es Kinox.To des Rollenspiels als schw? - Beispiele aus dem PONS Wörterbuch (redaktionell geprüft)US-Präsident Richard Nixon verwendete den Begriff War on drugs auf einer Pressekonferenz Samsung Allshare Download 1. a woman possessing heroic qualities. 2. a woman idealized for possessing superior qualities. 3. the main female character in a novel, play, film, etc. Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition © HarperCollins Publishers , , , , , , , , , The Heroine class are a variant of the Type diesel-electric attack submarine developed by Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft of Germany, currently in service with the South African Navy. See the trailer for Heroine released on the 21 September at selected Cineworld Cinemas. Visit lavitrecassee.com for more info and lavitrecassee.coma. The black heroine seldom elects to play the role of the alienated outsider or the lone adventurer in her quest for self-affirmation. [ ] She is usually literally tied down to her children.“ (Claudia Tate) Last post 06 Mar 13, The black heroine seldom elects to play the role of the alienated outsider or the lone adven 11 Replies. Hamari adhuri kahani - lavitrecassee.com?v=G0ntEJXen3wAe dil hai mushkil - lavitrecassee.com?v=dWDcYl1HfHkKhairiyat Pucho - https. Heroin, also known as diacetylmorphine and diamorphine among other names, is an opioid used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects. Medical grade diamorphine is used as a pure hydrochloride salt which is distinguished from black tar heroin, a variable admixture of morphine derivatives—predominantly 6-MAM (6-monoacetylmorphine), which is the result of crude Metabolism: liver. The Heroine class are a variant of the Type diesel-electric attack submarine developed by Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft (HDW) of Germany, currently in service with the Speed: 10 knots (19 km/h), surfaced;, knots . It is also used in the palliative management of bone fractures and other trauma, Serien Streaming Dienste in children. The rectum or the vaginal canal is Far From Fear the majority Der Herr Der Ringe Die Gefährten Streamcloud the drug would likely be taken up, through the membranes lining their walls. Sonar Blutadler Vikings STN Atlas CSU; hull mounted and flank arrays Radar : Surface search I-band. December
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Badajoz, Spain, Jun 7th, Don Mencia de los Nidos heroine. Statue George Frampton; of Edith Cavell ; nurse and WW1 heroine in St Martin's Place London, England, UK.
In Bokor National Park, a metre tall monument to Yeay Mao or Lok Yeay Mao Khmer: Grandma Mao , an ancient mythical heroine in Cambodia.
By Henri Chapu The previous trials were based on time-limited executive ordinances. The success of the Swiss trials led German, Dutch,  and Canadian  cities to try out their own diamorphine prescription programs.
Since January , Denmark has prescribed diamorphine to a few addicts who have tried methadone and buprenorphine without success.
It was estimated that around addicts would be able to receive free diamorphine. However, Danish addicts would only be able to inject heroin according to the policy set by Danish National Board of Health.
In July , the German Bundestag passed a law allowing diamorphine prescription as a standard treatment for addicts; a large-scale trial of diamorphine prescription had been authorized in the country in On 26 August , Health Canada issued regulations amending prior regulations it had issued under the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act ; the "New Classes of Practitioners Regulations", the "Narcotic Control Regulations", and the "Food and Drug Regulations", to allow doctors to prescribe diamorphine to people who have a severe opioid addiction who have not responded to other treatments.
The onset of heroin's effects depends upon the route of administration. Smoking is the fastest route of drug administration, although intravenous injection results in a quicker rise in blood concentration.
A study suggests that a fast onset of action increases the reinforcing effects of addictive drugs. Ingestion does not produce a rush as a forerunner to the high experienced with the use of heroin, which is most pronounced with intravenous use.
While the onset of the rush induced by injection can occur in as little as a few seconds, the oral route of administration requires approximately half an hour before the high sets in.
Large doses of heroin can cause fatal respiratory depression, and the drug has been used for suicide or as a murder weapon. The serial killer Harold Shipman used diamorphine on his victims, and the subsequent Shipman Inquiry led to a tightening of the regulations surrounding the storage, prescribing and destruction of controlled drugs in the UK.
Because significant tolerance to respiratory depression develops quickly with continued use and is lost just as quickly during withdrawal, it is often difficult to determine whether a heroin lethal overdose was accidental, suicide or homicide.
Examples include the overdose deaths of Sid Vicious , Janis Joplin , Tim Buckley , Hillel Slovak , Layne Staley , Bradley Nowell , Ted Binion , and River Phoenix.
Use of heroin by mouth is less common than other methods of administration, mainly because there is little to no "rush", and the effects are less potent.
Heroin's oral bioavailability is both dose-dependent as is morphine's and significantly higher than oral use of morphine itself, reaching up to The maximum plasma concentration of morphine following oral administration of heroin was around twice as much as that of oral morphine.
Injection , also known as "slamming", "banging", "shooting up", "digging" or "mainlining", is a popular method which carries relatively greater risks than other methods of administration.
Heroin base commonly found in Europe , when prepared for injection, will only dissolve in water when mixed with an acid most commonly citric acid powder or lemon juice and heated.
Heroin in the east-coast United States is most commonly found in the hydrochloride salt form, requiring just water and no heat to dissolve.
Users tend to initially inject in the easily accessible arm veins, but as these veins collapse over time, users resort to more dangerous areas of the body, such as the femoral vein in the groin.
Users who have used this route of administration often develop a deep vein thrombosis. The use of a common dispenser for water for the use in the preparation of the injection, as well as the sharing of spoons and filters can also cause the spread of blood-borne diseases.
Many countries now supply small sterile spoons and filters for single use in order to prevent the spread of disease. Smoking heroin refers to vaporizing it to inhale the resulting fumes, rather than burning and inhaling the smoke.
It is commonly smoked in glass pipes made from glassblown Pyrex tubes and light bulbs. Heroin may be smoked from aluminium foil, that is heated by a flame underneath it, with the resulting smoke inhaled through a tube of rolled up foil, a method also known as " chasing the dragon ".
Another popular route to intake heroin is insufflation snorting , where a user crushes the heroin into a fine powder and then gently inhales it sometimes with a straw or a rolled-up banknote , as with cocaine into the nose, where heroin is absorbed through the soft tissue in the mucous membrane of the sinus cavity and straight into the bloodstream.
This method of administration redirects first-pass metabolism , with a quicker onset and higher bioavailability than oral administration, though the duration of action is shortened.
This method is sometimes preferred by users who do not want to prepare and administer heroin for injection or smoking but still experience a fast onset.
Snorting heroin becomes an often unwanted route, once a user begins to inject the drug. The user may still get high on the drug from snorting, and experience a nod, but will not get a rush.
A "rush" is caused by a large amount of heroin entering the body at once. When the drug is taken in through the nose, the user does not get the rush because the drug is absorbed slowly rather than instantly.
Heroin for pain has been mixed with sterile water on site by the attending physician, and administered using a syringe with a nebulizer tip.
Little research has been focused on the suppository anal insertion or pessary vaginal insertion methods of administration, also known as "plugging".
These methods of administration are commonly carried out using an oral syringe. Heroin can be dissolved and withdrawn into an oral syringe which may then be lubricated and inserted into the anus or vagina before the plunger is pushed.
The rectum or the vaginal canal is where the majority of the drug would likely be taken up, through the membranes lining their walls.
Heroin is classified as a hard drug in terms of drug harmfulness. Like most opioids , unadulterated heroin may lead to adverse effects.
The purity of street heroin varies greatly, leading to overdoses when the purity is higher than they expected. Users report an intense rush , an acute transcendent state of euphoria , which occurs while diamorphine is being metabolized into 6-monoacetylmorphine 6-MAM and morphine in the brain.
Some believe that heroin produces more euphoria than other opioids; one possible explanation is the presence of 6-monoacetylmorphine, a metabolite unique to heroin — although a more likely explanation is the rapidity of onset.
While other opioids of recreational use produce only morphine, heroin also leaves 6-MAM, also a psycho- active metabolite.
However, this perception is not supported by the results of clinical studies comparing the physiological and subjective effects of injected heroin and morphine in individuals formerly addicted to opioids; these subjects showed no preference for one drug over the other.
Equipotent injected doses had comparable action courses, with no difference in subjects' self-rated feelings of euphoria, ambition, nervousness, relaxation, drowsiness, or sleepiness.
Nausea , vomiting , and severe itching may also occur. After the initial effects, users usually will be drowsy for several hours; mental function is clouded; heart function slows, and breathing is also severely slowed, sometimes enough to be life-threatening.
Slowed breathing can also lead to coma and permanent brain damage. Repeated heroin use changes the physical structure and physiology of the brain, creating long-term imbalances in neuronal and hormonal systems that are not easily reversed.
Studies have shown some deterioration of the brain's white matter due to heroin use, which may affect decision-making abilities, the ability to regulate behavior, and responses to stressful situations.
Heroin also produces profound degrees of tolerance and physical dependence. Tolerance occurs when more and more of the drug is required to achieve the same effects.
With physical dependence , the body adapts to the presence of the drug , and withdrawal symptoms occur if use is reduced abruptly.
Intravenous use of heroin and any other substance with needles and syringes or other related equipment may lead to:.
The withdrawal syndrome from heroin may begin within as little as two hours of discontinuation of the drug; however, this time frame can fluctuate with the degree of tolerance as well as the amount of the last consumed dose, and more typically begins within 6—24 hours after cessation.
Symptoms may include sweating , malaise , anxiety, depression, akathisia , priapism , extra sensitivity of the genitals in females, general feeling of heaviness, excessive yawning or sneezing, rhinorrhea , insomnia , cold sweats, chills, severe muscle and bone aches, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, cramps, watery eyes,  fever, cramp-like pains, and involuntary spasms in the limbs thought to be an origin of the term "kicking the habit" .
Heroin overdose is usually treated with the opioid antagonist , naloxone. This reverses the effects of heroin and causes an immediate return of consciousness but may result in withdrawal symptoms.
The half-life of naloxone is shorter than some opioids, such that it may need to be given multiple times until the opioid has been metabolized by the body.
Between and , heroin was the leading cause of drug related deaths in the United States. Depending on drug interactions and numerous other factors, death from overdose can take anywhere from several minutes to several hours.
Death usually occurs due to lack of oxygen resulting from the lack of breathing caused by the opioid. Heroin overdoses can occur because of an unexpected increase in the dose or purity or because of diminished opioid tolerance.
However, many fatalities reported as overdoses are probably caused by interactions with other depressant drugs such as alcohol or benzodiazepines.
This means that the user may prepare what they consider to be a moderate dose while actually taking far more than intended. Also, tolerance typically decreases after a period of abstinence.
If this occurs and the user takes a dose comparable to their previous use, the user may experience drug effects that are much greater than expected, potentially resulting in an overdose.
It has been speculated that an unknown portion of heroin-related deaths are the result of an overdose or allergic reaction to quinine , which may sometimes be used as a cutting agent.
Drug overdoses killed more than 70, in the US in , with heroin involved in 15, of those deaths. US yearly overdose deaths involving heroin.
US yearly deaths from all opioid drugs. Included in this number are opioid analgesics, along with heroin and illicit synthetic opioids. When taken orally, heroin undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism via deacetylation , making it a prodrug for the systemic delivery of morphine.
Unlike hydromorphone and oxymorphone , however, administered intravenously, heroin creates a larger histamine release, similar to morphine, resulting in the feeling of a greater subjective "body high" to some, but also instances of pruritus itching when they first start using.
Normally GABA , released from inhibitory neurones, inhibits the release of dopamine. Opiates, like heroin and morphine, decrease the inhibitory activity of such neurones.
This causes increased release of dopamine in the brain which is the reason for euphoric and rewarding effects of heroin.
The contribution of these receptors to the overall pharmacology of heroin remains unknown. A subclass of morphine derivatives, namely the 3,6 esters of morphine, with similar effects and uses, includes the clinically used strong analgesics nicomorphine Vilan , and dipropanoylmorphine ; there is also the latter's dihydromorphine analogue, diacetyldihydromorphine Paralaudin.
Two other 3,6 diesters of morphine invented in —75 along with diamorphine, dibenzoylmorphine and acetylpropionylmorphine , were made as substitutes after it was outlawed in and, therefore, sold as the first " designer drugs " until they were outlawed by the League of Nations in Diamorphine is produced from acetylation of morphine derived from natural opium sources, generally using acetic anhydride.
The major metabolites of diamorphine, 6-MAM, morphine, morphineglucuronide, and morphineglucuronide, may be quantitated in blood, plasma or urine to monitor for use, confirm a diagnosis of poisoning, or assist in a medicolegal death investigation.
Most commercial opiate screening tests cross-react appreciably with these metabolites, as well as with other biotransformation products likely to be present following usage of street-grade diamorphine such as 6-acetylcholine and codeine.
However, chromatographic techniques can easily distinguish and measure each of these substances. When interpreting the results of a test, it is important to consider the diamorphine usage history of the individual, since a chronic user can develop tolerance to doses that would incapacitate an opiate-naive individual, and the chronic user often has high baseline values of these metabolites in his system.
The opium poppy was cultivated in lower Mesopotamia as long ago as BC. Diamorphine was first synthesized in by C. Alder Wright , an English chemist working at St.
Mary's Hospital Medical School in London who had been experimenting combining morphine with various acids. He boiled anhydrous morphine alkaloid with acetic anhydride for several hours and produced a more potent, acetylated form of morphine which is now called diacetylmorphine or morphine diacetate.
He sent the compound to F. Pierce of Owens College in Manchester for analysis. Pierce told Wright:. Doses… were subcutaneously injected into young dogs and rabbit… with the following general results… great prostration, fear, and sleepiness speedily following the administration, the eyes being sensitive, and pupils constrict, considerable salivation being produced in dogs, and a slight tendency to vomiting in some cases, but no actual emesis.
Respiration was at first quickened, but subsequently reduced, and the heart's action was diminished and rendered irregular.
Wright's invention did not lead to any further developments, and diamorphine became popular only after it was independently re-synthesized 23 years later by chemist Felix Hoffmann.
Instead, the experiment produced an acetylated form of morphine one and a half to two times more potent than morphine itself. Bayer scientists were not the first to make heroin, but their scientists discovered ways to make it, and Bayer led the commercialization of heroin.
In , Bayer marketed diacetylmorphine as an over-the-counter drug under the trademark name Heroin. Morphine at the time was a popular recreational drug, and Bayer wished to find a similar but non-addictive substitute to market.
However, contrary to Bayer's advertising as a "non-addictive morphine substitute," heroin would soon have one of the highest rates of addiction among its users.
From through to , diamorphine was marketed under the trademark name Heroin as a non-addictive morphine substitute and cough suppressant.
In the US, the Harrison Narcotics Tax Act was passed in to control the sale and distribution of diacetylmorphine and other opioids, which allowed the drug to be prescribed and sold for medical purposes.
In , the United States Congress banned its sale, importation, or manufacture. It is now a Schedule I substance , which makes it illegal for non-medical use in signatory nations of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs treaty, including the United States.
The Health Committee of the League of Nations banned diacetylmorphine in , although it took more than three years for this to be implemented.
In the meantime, the first designer drugs , viz. Bayer lost some of its trademark rights to heroin as well as aspirin under the Treaty of Versailles following the German defeat in World War I.
Pete Doherty is also a self-confessed user of heroin. Many musicians have made songs referencing their heroin usage.
Heroin is also known by many street names including dope, H, smack, junk, horse, scag, and brown, among others. In Hong Kong, diamorphine is regulated under Schedule 1 of Hong Kong 's Chapter Dangerous Drugs Ordinance.
It is available by prescription. In the Netherlands, diamorphine is a List I drug of the Opium Law. It is available for prescription under tight regulation exclusively to long-term addicts for whom methadone maintenance treatment has failed.
It cannot be used to treat severe pain or other illnesses. In the United Kingdom, diamorphine is available by prescription, though it is a restricted Class A drug.
According to the 50th edition of the British National Formulary BNF , diamorphine hydrochloride may be used in the treatment of acute pain, myocardial infarction , acute pulmonary oedema , and chronic pain.
The treatment of chronic non- malignant pain must be supervised by a specialist. The BNF notes that all opioid analgesics cause dependence and tolerance but that this is "no deterrent in the control of pain in terminal illness".
When used in the palliative care of cancer patients, diamorphine is often injected using a syringe driver. In Switzerland, heroin is produced in injectable or tablet form under the name Diaphin by a private company under contract to the Swiss government.
In Australia diamorphine is listed as a schedule 9 prohibited substance under the Poisons Standard October In Canada, diamorphine is a controlled substance  under Schedule I of the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act CDSA.
Possession of diamorphine for the purpose of trafficking is an indictable offense and subject to imprisonment for life. In the United States, diamorphine is a Schedule I drug according to the Controlled Substances Act of , making it illegal to possess without a DEA license.
In , the US state of Oregon would become the first state to decriminalize the use of heroin after voters passed Ballot Measure Turkey maintains strict laws against the use, possession or trafficking of illegal drugs.
If convicted under these offences, one could receive a heavy fine or a prison sentence of 4 to 24 years. Misused prescription medicine, such as opioids, can lead to heroin use and dependence.
Diamorphine is produced from acetylation of morphine derived from natural opium sources. One such method of heroin production involves isolation of the water-soluble components of raw opium, including morphine, in a strongly basic aqueous solution, followed by recrystallization of the morphine base by addition of ammonium chloride.
The solid morphine base is then filtered out. Type Type Type Type Type Type Type Type Type Type Type SG. Subclasses: Chang Bogo Dolphin Gal Heroine Shishumar TR Tridente.
Categories : Submarine classes Heroine-class submarines Active submarines of South Africa. Hidden categories: All articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from July Articles with permanently dead external links CS1 maint: archived copy as title.
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